The market for network-attached storage units has expanded significantly over the last few years. The rapid growth in public cloud storage (Dropbox, OneDrive, Google Drive and the like) has tempered the expansion a bit amongst consumers who are not very tech-savvy. However, the benefits provided by a NAS in the local network are undeniable, particularly when complemented with public cloud services. Enterprise users obviously need NAS units with different performance and feature requirements. Our previous NAS reviews have focused more on the performance aspect. With feature set and ease of use becoming important across all market segments, we believe that a qualitative evaluation of the different commercial NAS operating systems is needed to educate consumers on the options available.


Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) NAS operating systems are popular across a wide range of market segments - business and enterprise users (including those with dedicated IT staff) prefer to have plug-and-play storage units that don't need much babysitting, while the average consumer often wants a media-centric unit without the hassle of re-purposing an old PC or building a file server from scratch. This regularly-updated piece will take a look at the features and usability of the currently popular COTS NAS operating systems.

The following NAS vendors / operating systems are currently covered in this article:

  1. Asustor [ ADM 2.6.5R9N1 ]
  2. Netgear [ ReadyNAS OS 6.6.0 ]
  3. QNAP [ QTS 4.2.2 ]
  4. Synology [ DSM 6.0.2-8451 Update 3 ]
  5. Western Digital [ My Cloud OS 2.21.19 ]
  6. ZyXEL [ FW v5.20(AATB.0) ]

Different vendors cater to different market segments - both in terms of hardware and software features. For example, Asustor, Netgear, QNAP and Synology have units ranging from 2-bay desktop models targeting the average home consumer to 12-bay rackmounts targeting SMBs and SMEs. Western Digital has only desktop units- 1- and 2-bay models targeting entry level users, and multiple 2- and 4-bay models targeting experts, professionals and business users. ZyXEL, on the other hand, focuses on only one market segment - the average home consumer. Every vendor other than ZyXEL in the list above carries both ARM- and x86-based solutions. ZyXEL has only ARM-based solutions in their lineup. The choice between ARM and x86 has to be made by the end-user depending on the requirements (number of users, transcoding support etc.). This piece is not meant to provide inputs on the hardware choice, though we will briefly touch upon how the OS features might vary based on the platform. The hardware currently used to test out the various OS features are tabulated at the end of this section.

Security has turned out to be a very important concern for equipment connected to the network, particularly those exposed to the Internet. Therefore, frequent updates are needed even in the NAS firmwares to handle vulnerabilities that get exposed from time to time. The release date of the latest firmware is also a measure of the commitment of the NAS vendor to their consumers.

Most COTS NAS operating systems are based on Linux, and utilize software RAID (mdadm) with the stable ext4 file system. Recently, btrfs has also become popular in this space. ZFS, due to its resource-hungry nature, has been restricted to units targeting enterprise users. DIY consumers can also get a taste of it using open-source BSD-based operating systems such as FreeNAS.

The following table provides the essential information discussed above in a easy to compare manner.

NAS Operating Systems Evaluation - Comparison Details
Firmware Version ADM 2.6.5R9N1 ReadyNAS OS 6.6.0
Firmware Release Date October 3, 2016 September 29, 2016
OS Kernel Linux 4.1.0 Linux 4.1.30
File System ext4 btrfs (Customized)
Evaluated Hardware 10-bay AS6210T 4-bay ReadyNAS RN214

This piece focuses on the core user-facing aspects of COTS NAS systems. These include the setup process and the quality of the user interface. Storage management and configurable services are the next topic. An overview of user management is followed by discussion of the networking features available in each OS.

Most NAS operating systems have feature parity in terms of core features. However, as we shall see at the end of this piece, there is a difference in ease of use which make some vendors stand out of the crowd. These vendors also try to differentiate with value-added services such as media servers, surveillance (IP camera) support, cloud features and other such features. They will be covered in detail in a follow-on article.

Setup Process and User Interface
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  • Namisecond - Tuesday, November 15, 2016 - link

    Don't forget the hot-swap bays. A regular PC wouldn't have them and they can get rather pricey.
  • MrCrispy - Tuesday, November 15, 2016 - link

    Yes a commercial NAS has some advantages of course. But the price is too high.

    You don't need a server license, any Windows version, even Home is fine, there are plenty of remote control options.
  • Notmyusualid - Monday, November 21, 2016 - link

    I get my servers WITH a Win Server license. Its not unheard of, from a well-known auction site.

    With Windows its a breeze creating shares.

    And having commercial-grade HP servers allows for hot swapping, RAM-based controllers with battery backup, lights-out access and other cool stuff.

    But as mentioned above - power & noise are the real caveats. Don't underestimate this part - you'll need a rack mounting in the basement as you will be able to STAND hearing even a couple of these running 24/7, and the electric bills soon show a difference too.

    Call me a noob, but in the end - I didn't like FreeNAS, however much I liked the idea. Upgrading is not as easy as they make it out to be - I was forced back to the command line (as a CCNP its something I'm well used to, but dislike) and then - sometimes is JUST DOESN'T WORK / UPGRADE. Those are just my real-world experiences, and I know some of you are happy. But for me, it is no thank you Sir.

    I too will continue buying NAS boxes off the shelf, or adding shares on existing servers if policies allow.
  • edlee - Monday, November 14, 2016 - link

    Or you could just buy a lenovo ts440 intel e3-1245 with 8 drive bays and hardware raid for $420, there was a deal last year on this. Install win server 2k12 r2 and be done with it
  • jlabelle2 - Tuesday, November 15, 2016 - link

    - Install win server 2k12 r2 and be done with it

    How do you do that? As a single private person? Could you point me the link where I can buy it?
  • DanNeely - Tuesday, November 15, 2016 - link

    Anywhere that sells high end software will sell the standard edition for about $700. I suspect for this use you could get away with a $400 essentials license.
  • jlabelle2 - Tuesday, November 15, 2016 - link

    - you could get away with a $400 essentials license.

    That is what I thought so you would end up with something... MORE expensive than those NAS but less functionalities for consumer needs.

    I don't know why there are some lunatics always trying to say that a DIY NAS would be cheaper and better when it is obviously not the case.
  • doggface - Tuesday, November 15, 2016 - link

    FreeNas is FREE. :D
  • jlabelle2 - Wednesday, November 16, 2016 - link

    But not the hardware. Let's be real for a minute and stop the bull..t.

    A 2 bay NAS cost 250$. New.
    Can you tell me how much cost, NEW, a celeron processor, 1Go of RAM, the motherboard, the case, the alimentation, the fans... to built your own NAS hardware?
    What do you expect to win? 50$? Does it really worth it with all the loss of functionality? Seriously?
  • doggface - Wednesday, November 16, 2016 - link

    About $300 for a 5 bay implementation. Did it myself. With as I said earlier, the same feature set, A better zfs implementation... Etc etc. (see earlier posts)

    It's not bulls**t. I am just spreading the word, because it is just that good.

    If anything the zealotry is on the side of cots. We humble freenas folk are just trying to advise you that you can have an enterprise solution for the same cost as consumer cots that is as good if not better.

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